It is widely acknowledged that the outlook for economies and investment markets is unusually uncertain, given the huge political changes that we are witnessing across the world. It is also widely acknowledged that most assets are expensive and most likely are priced to offer sub-normal prospective returns. Why then is volatility (the VIX) so low? History tells us that periods of crisis are often preceded by periods of abnormally low volatility and complacency about risk and valuations. Are we in one such period?